Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) (from Spanish, meaning “without a name”) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).
SNV occurs wherever its reservoir rodent carrier, the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, is found, which includes essentially the entire populated area of North America, except for the far southeastern region from eastern Texas through Florida, Alaska, and the far northern reaches of Canada. SNV and HCPS are especially common in western states; peak incidences for HCPS have been reported in regions in which there is a lot of contact between humans and mice (New Mexico, Arizona) and in states with exceptionally large rural populations such as California. All of the western provinces of Canada have also reported cases. SNV can be contracted through the inhalation of virus-contaminated deer mouse excreta.
Symptoms are mild flu-like such as malaise, headache, cough, and fever, with a sudden onset of pulmonary edema necessitating ventilators. With a 50% mortality.