Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is a Phlebovirus associated with sandfly fever. It is related to the Naples and Toscana viruses, which also cause sandfly fever.
SFSV is found in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and parts of central and southern Asia, such as Italy, Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Cyprus, Algeria, and Turkey. The peak incidence occurs in warm months, especially August, when the Phlebotomus papatasi sandfly vectors, which transmit the virus during blood feeding, are most active.
Sandfly fever is a nonfatal influenza-like illness. symptoms include high fever that lasts 3–74 hours, malaise, abdominal pain, headache, severe retro-orbital pain, lower back pain, photophobia, and anorexia. Patients may also experience transient diarrhea or constipation with abdominal discomfort. The only sandfly fever virus known to be neurotropic is Toscana virus. However, there have been a report of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis associated with SFSV.